The military headquarters of the Kipshak Sultan, which appeared more than a thousand years ago in the left-bank valley of the Ishim River, has taken its place in the history of the new capital of Kazakhstan, Astana.
Thanks to the discovery and exploration of the ruins of the ancient city of Bozok, it was possible to establish that the history of the city goes back more than a thousand years. Since the beginning of the 20th century, prominent scholars and local historians have been engaged in the search for medieval cities that were once located in the basins of the Nura and Ishim rivers.
However, only with the transfer of the capital from Almaty to Akmola, did a systematic archaeological study of the upper Priishimye begin. The Bozok fortress was discovered in 1998 by K.A. Akishev, the leader and founder of the Ishim archaeological expedition. The settlement arose as a military headquarters, the residence of the Kipshak Sultan, who controlled an important node of the caravan routes of the Steppe Silk Road.
The appearance and military-defense qualities of the Bozok settlement do not correspond to the level of military affairs of the Golden Horde period, which testifies in favor of the appearance of the settlement in the pre-Mongol period, that is, when Oguz-Kypshak tribes began to rise in the steppes of Saryarka. Centuries passed, the place was left to its first settlers.
The second stage in the history of the settlement occurs during the period of strengthening in the steppe of the Kipshak Khanate (X-XI centuries). The Kipchaks settled in this place cleared the moats, built houses of clay bricks and wood. In the center of the grounds there were yurts.
Their bases were discovered during the excavation process. New residents of the settlement were bombarded by moats and the first mausoleums and minarets were built here. This is not surprising, since from deep antiquity cities in the steppe were formed around shrines, around the graves of their ancestors.
The third stage of the development of this place began in the Golden Horde era (XIII-XIV centuries) and continued until the new time.
The ruins of the ancient Bozok settlement acquire the status of a cult center and become the burial place of the nobility.
Perhaps one of the first Muslim missionaries was buried here, the grave of which became a shrine. The remains of five mausoleums, built of raw and burnt bricks, were investigated in the site of ancient Bozok settlement. Next to the mausoleums open brick kilns. In one of the graves was found a silver coin, which, presumably, was released in 1321. Perhaps life in the Bozok settlement continued in the period of the Kazakh Khanate. Burials made according to the Muslim ritual are open: the dead are buried in the side walls – llahad – head to the west, facing south, without clothes.
The latest burials, possibly, belong to the XVII-XVIII centuries. On the southern edge of the archaeological monument are located the ruins of the Kazakh wintering of XVIII-XIX centuries. The date was set by the fragments of Kuznetsk porcelain.
The ancient Bozok settlement has a unique meaning for the capital of Kazakhstan, as confirmation of its ancient origins. The appearance of a military stake on the site of modern Astana over a thousand years ago is due to a geostrategic factor – the ability to control the caravan routes of the Steppe Silk Road. The Bozok settlement, judging by the concentration of mausoleums on its territory, was the spiritual Mecca of the medieval population of the Nura-Ishim region.